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The liquid present in the mouth and secreted by the salivary glands. The DNA in such bands is either denser (GC-rich) or less dense (AT-rich) than the DNA in the main band. The second is the secondary spermatocyte, which is produced from the primary spermatocyte by division. A mature male haploid gamete capable of active movement by means of a undulipodium. The genus of birds comprised of the banded penguins. The column of nervous tissue that in vertebrates runs along the back, and that in bony animals is enclosed within the vertebral column. splice sites Locations where RNA splices exons together to form a continuous gene transcript. spore (1) in a plant or fungus, an asexual reproductive cell that does not participate in fertilization; (2) in prokaryotes, a dormant, relatively impervious cell that is resistant to destruction by heating. A new type of organism arising in a single generation.
saliva (common names: spit, spittle) /sə-LIE-və/ n. Its capacity for contraction is the essential trait that makes muscles work. Any fraction of DNA that forms a separate band from the main body of DNA during isopycnic Cs CL gradient centrifugation ("satellite" refers to the subordinate or minor status of such bands). Certain aspects of their worldview, based on religious dogmas, have carried over into modern biological thought, for example, their ideas concerning continuity, gradualism, and ideal forms. The outermost coat of the eyeball, extending from the optic nerve to the edges of the cornea. The first of these two types is the primary spermatocyte, which is a mature sex cell that develops from the spermatogonium without division. During spermatogenesis, one of the primordial, undifferentiated sex cells that give rise, via maturation and growth, first to a primary spermatocyte, then via division, to two secondary spermatocytes that in turn divide to form four spermatids, which then mature without further division into four fully functional spermatozoa — spermatogonial /sperm-awd-ə-GŌ-nee-əl/ spermatozoon (pl spermatozoa) /sper-mat-ə-ZŌ-ən; pl: -ZŌ-ə/ n. An angular bend in the large intestine between the transverse and descending colons.
saccule /SACK-yool/ (1) a small sac; (2) the lesser of two sacs within the vestibule of the inner ear. salpinx (pl salpinges) /SAL-pinks, sal-PIN-jeez/ n. saltation (also saltatory evolution) /sawl-TAY-shən/ n. The production of new types of organisms via rapid, discontinuous processes; used in opposition to the term gradualism. A human spermatozoon is about 0.005 mm (0.002 in) in length. A ring of muscle controlling passage of an orifice. A developmental defect characterized by failure of fusion of vertebral arches, with or without protrusion and dysplasia of the spinal cord or its membranes. Three spirochete genera, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Treponema, contain organisms that are important causative agents of human disease spiroscope /SPIGH-rō-skope/ n. The name is derived from the Latin term lusus naturae, "sport of nature," which expressed the idea that nature was in some way play a game and entertaining itself when it made new organisms in this way.
A plant sterol with a molecular structure similar to that of cholesterol. Sodium salts are found in body fluids (blood, serum, and lymph) and in the tissues (in lower concentrations). Blocks of mesoderm along the sides of a chordate embryo. Able to tolerate only a narrow range of temperatures. The flat bone at the front of the chest that connects the ribs on one side with those on the other. PICTURE OF STOMACH | HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM stool Excrement discharged from the bowels. stratum germinativum /STRAT-əm jer-men-ə-TEE-vəm/ (pl strata germinativa /STRAT-ə jer-men-ə-TEE-və/) The skin's inmost layer, which is composed of columnar epithelial cells cells that divide to replace the outer layers as they wear away. superoxide dismutase (SOD) /SOO-pər-AWK-sīd DIS-myoo-tāz/ n. An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. suture (1) a line of union forming an immovable joint (as in the skull or between the segments of a gastropod shell) SUTURES OF HUMAN SKULL | SUTURES IN A DEER SKULL (2) surgical stitches uniting two parts (or the line of union so formed). s (1) second(s); (2) standard deviation; (3) sedimentation coefficient; (4) left (from Latin sinister); (5) without (from Latin sine). S (1) Silurian Period; (2) sulfur; (3) serine; (4) S phase; (5) Svedberg unit. PERIODIC TABLE sodium bicarbonate (Na HCO₃ also bicarbonate of soda) /SODE-ee-əm by-KAR-bə-nate/ n. spawn (1) to lay eggs in water (said of an aquatic animal); (2) eggs laid in water by an aquatic animal. However, there is no general consensus among scientists concerning how to decide whether any given group of organisms should be so treated, since there is no general agreement among biologists on the definition of the word species. It lies between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. Streptococcus (pl streptococci) /STREP-tə-cock-əs/ n. A genus of gram-positive cocci, of which most strains are harmless. stroma /STRŌ-mə/ (pl stromata /strō-MAWT-ə/) (1) The portion of a chloroplast where the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water occurs; (2) the healthy tissue surrounding a tumor. Large mineral structures formed in shallow water by microorganisms, especially cyanobacteria. sucrose /SOO-krōs, -rōz/ (Suc also saccharose /SACK-ə-rōs, -rōz/) Table sugar (also: cane or beet sugar). Heteropaternal superfecundation occurs when separate fertilizations result from two or more inseminations administered by two or more different males. PICTURE OF SUPERNUMERARY FINGER | PICTURE OF SUPERNUMERARY RAINBOW | PICTURE OF SUPERNUMERARY NIPPLE superorder See: subclass. Symbiosis is of three types: parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism. Of two populations: Occupying overlapping geographic regions. Under such circumstances, it is generally claimed that the trait arose after the divergence of the most recent common ancestor of the taxa in the related group, but before the divergence of those taxa. skullcap Within the context of fossil human remains, a fragment composed of the upper portion of the skull. They also regulate osmotic pressure of cells and protect against excessive water loss from tissues. Any cell in the body except gametes and their precursors. The new genetic material cannot be passed to offspring. somatic mutation (also somatic cell mutation) /sō-MAT-ək, -ik/ n. Used to detect specific fragments by complementary radioactive probes. A given type of organism is treated as a species if it is assigned a binomial name. stratum lucidum /STRAT-əm loo-SEED-dəm/ (pl strata lucida /STRAT-ə loo-SEE-də/) A transparent layer of the skin. (1) an artificial medium on which a microorganism is grown; (2) the molecule on which an enzyme acts. An enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose into fructose and glucose. superfecundation /SOOP-er-FEK-ən-DAY-shən/ The fertilization of two or more ova from the same ovulation. A relationship, between two distinct types of organisms, in which they live together. synapomorphy /sin-AP-ə-more-fee/ (also synapomorphic character /sin-ap-ə-MORE-fik/) In cladistics, a trait that is: (1) shared by a group of two or more taxa deemed more closely related to each other than to any other taxon under consideration, and (2) not shared with any taxon outside the group. The bulbous structures on the end of an axon, each of which contains many synaptic vesicles. One of the many minute vesicles in a synaptic knob where neurotransmitters are stored.